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criado de Rosela



Camarasa, Marqués de

noble (título que les da Gilote a los lacayos)


letrado, gobernador, traidor


dama noble, sobrina del Duque de Mantua, cásase con Criselio

Clemencia dama noble, hija del Duque de Mantua, cásase con Otón


apellido noble


caballero, general, Marqués de Padua y de Cremona después, primo del Duque de Mantua


Conde de Placencia, prisionero, cásase con la hermana de Criselio, hijo del Marqués de Monferrato


capitán, noble, hermano de Criselio

Florel, Conde de



apellido noble


gramático, maestro, dómine


villano, gracioso, soldado


apellido del Duque de Mantua


noble viejo


apellido noble


viejo, mercader, padre de Rosela y Césaro



Mantua, Duque de

noble viejo


dama noble, esposa de Grimaldo, madre de Otón


caballero noble, estudiante, labrador, pastor, vaquero, serrano, preso, capitán, Conde de Val Hermoso después


alcaide, preso


dama-criada (sirve a Clemencia), plebeya, privada, noble después; cásase con el Conde de Florel; hermana de Césaro


villana, esposa de Gilote

P. anón.:  voz (dentro) (*384a, acot. 1; R I, *1650b, acot. 2; *1540a, acot. 1); soldados (*391a, acot. 3; *1661a, acot. 3; *1550a, acot. 3; no hablan); un paje (habla 397a; 1670b, 1560a; ¿el mismo?  habla  403a, 1680a, 1569b); otros (*404b, acot. 6; *1682b, acot. 2; *1572a, acot. 2; no hablan); alabarderos (*405a, acot. 2; *1683b, acot. 2; *1573a acot. 2; no hablan); dos pajes (*405a, acot. 2, *1683b, acot. 2; *1573a, acot. 2, habla uno).

Todos son italianos.


Otón's father, who is noble although not very wealthy, wants his son to be a student because their relatives in Rome would help him in his career if he were a learned man.  Otón, however, does not care about his studies and is not a very talented student; he works at Latin but still has not learned sum, est, and fui.  (He thinks that sum is a noun.)  Much more interesting to Otón is Rosela, with whom he is in love.  She scorns Otón, though, because her brother Césaro plans for his son Enrique (Conde de Placencia) to marry the Duke's daughter, Clemencia.  Césaro has also promised his sister that he will marry her to no less than a count.

Grimaldo, Otón's father, is angry because Otón is such a poor student and also is jealous of Césaro and his father Honorato, a merchant, because they are so proud of Césaro's new success.  Grimaldo sends Otón out to be a shepherd, while Otón's mother, Octavia, says he need not be wise, but asks that God give him good fortune instead.  ("Ventura te dé Dios, hijo / que el saber poco te basta".)  Meanwhile, Césaro is named governor by the Duke, and Rosela is to serve Clemencia and marry a count.

Clemencia is loved by a young gentleman, Criselio, who is very unhappy that she is to marry Enrique.  His woes are increased by the fact that he is to escort Clemencia to meet the Duke, the Marqués, and Enrique.  Nor is Clemencia pleased over her upcoming marriage to Enrique, a man whom she has not even met.  When they arrive at the fortress where they are to meet the others, Criselio tells Clemencia that his brother, who serves the Marqués, has told him that Enrique plans to dishonor her before the wedding and thereby get the Duke's estate as revenge for the Duke's having won the settlement.  He promises to bring his men to protect her, and leaves the door of her room open to the garden so that she can escape if need be.

Just after Criselio leaves and before he can get back with his men, Enrique arrives, but Clemencia is warned of his coming and escapes through the garden to the forest.  There she meets Otón and asks him to protect her.  He finds some peasant clothes for her to put on and takes her to his father's estate for safekeeping.


Otón has brought Clemencia to his father's home, but Grimaldo has locked up his son for punishment because he is suspicious of his (Otón's) relationship with Clemencia.  Enrique, the Duke, Criselio, Clavela, Rosela, Césaro, and Ramón (the alcaide of the fortaleza), searching for Clemencia, arrive at Garibaldi’s estate.  The Duke thinks that Enrique has hidden Clemencia, while Enrique thinks the Duke has hidden her.  At this point Clemencia appears and tells them that Enrique, going against the settlement that the Pope approved, abducted her from her chambers at the fortress and that Otón saved her.  While Enrique denies everything, the others congratulate Otón, who is freed by his father; even Rosela regrets that she judged him so harshly.

As a result of all that has happened, the Duke and Enrique resume their war against each other.  The Duke makes Otón a captain, because although he is not good at studies he is valiant and will have good fortune, which is very important in war.  Criselio is to be their general, and Césaro will plan their strategy because he is so brilliant.  The Duke promises Césaro that if they defeat Enrique he will give Rosela a titled husband.  One of the villagers, Gilote, also dresses as a soldier and goes along with Otón.

Césaro plans for them to go into the forest in front of Enrique's palace at night and to then make carts in order to enter the estate posing as farmers.  This plan backfires, however, because Enrique learns that they are there and routs their forces.  Otón and Gilote arrive a little late, however, and come upon Enrique and Alberto, who are alone.  Otón captures Enrique and takes him to the Duke, arriving just after Criselio and Césaro have told him of their defeat.  The Duke makes Otón a count and everyone admires him and thinks he is wonderful.  Rosela is jealous, and Otón is able to get back at her for having been so snobbish.  At Otón's request the Duke does not imprison Enrique, but he is not to leave Monferrato.  Césaro is now to stick to his studies and give up military strategy.   He is quite chagrined at having been shown up by someone so ignorant at Otón, but he admits that when one has an abundance of good fortune, a little knowledge will suffice.


Clemencia has grown to love Enrique and she admits to Clavela that she made up the story about his abducting her.  She now realizes that Criselio told her that Enrique was planning to dishonor her because he loved her and did not want her to marry Enrique.  Rosela confides to Clemencia that she loves Otón and asks for her help in winning him.  To that end Clemencia informs Otón that a lady loves him and tells him to go that night to the terrace, where by speaking with her he will talk with the one who loves him.  Naturally he misunderstands and thinks it is Clemencia who loves him.

The Duke, meanwhile, has promised Criselio that he will make him his heir and marry him to Clemencia.  At Clemencia's request, he agrees to marry Rosela to Otón.  He then tells her that she is to marry Criselio, but she protests that she does not want to marry a relative.  The Duke is adamant, however, and tells her to think it over.  Shortly thereafter, Césaro, motivated by jealousy of Otón and wanting to get the latter in trouble, tells the Duke that Otón and Clemencia are in love.  He urges the Duke to propose a marriage with Rosela to Otón and see Otón's reaction.  He suggests that Clemencia only asked the Duke to marry Rosela and Otón in order to mislead him.  The Duke, therefore, calls in Otón and proposes to him that he marry Rosela.  Otón is hesitant and also surprised that Clemencia had suggested such a marriage, because he thinks she loves him.  Otón's reaction convinces the Duke that Césaro is right about Otón and Clemencia.  Césaro urges the Duke to have Otón killed, but the Duke refuses, saying he owes Otón too much.  Instead, the Duke decides to send Otón to Monferrato to take Enrique's place there.

Still jealous, Césaro tells Enrique that Otón and the Duke are plotting to marry Otón by force to Clemencia that night and to have Enrique killed so that Otón can take over his lands and title.  Césaro and Enrique plan to foil this plot by killing Otón and letting Criselio, who is known by everyone to be in love with Clemencia, take the blame for Otón's death.  In the meantime, the Duke gives a note to Criselio and one to Otón, but he accidentally mixes up the notes and gives each man the note intended for the other.  Thus, Criselio receives a note saying that he is to go to Monferrato before marrying and be in charge there, while Otón's note tells him that he is to be the Duke's heir and marry Clemencia.  To further confirm his belief that Clemencia loves him, Otón now receives a note from her asking the Count (the recipient of the note) to come to the garden that night, and saying that Criselio is trying to usurp his place.  Rosela delivers the note to Otón in error, however, since it was intended for Enrique but Clemencia simply asked Rosela to deliver it to "the Count" without specifying which one and Rosela assumed it to be for Otón, regarding the marriage of Rosela and Otón.

Clavela, meanwhile, informs the Duke and Criselio that Clemencia has written to Enrique and asked him to meet her in the garden that night.  Clavela, who loves Criselio, hopes that as a reward for this news she will get to marry Criselio.

That night Otón goes to meet Clemencia, as the note directed him to do.  The Duke, Criselio and others arrive and find Gilote, who tells them that he is the lackey of the Count, whom they immediately assume to be Enrique rather than Otón.  He tells them the Count is with Clemencia.  Next Césaro and Enrique come, looking for Otón.  They find the Duke and his group, and Césaro recognizes Gilote as Otón's lackey.  They then realize that it is Otón who has gone to Clemencia.  Meanwhile, Clemencia has recognized Otón, but it is too late.  The Duke is angry with Otón, but the latter shows him the note from Clemencia and says he also received the note from the Duke telling him he is to marry Clemencia.  When Criselio tells of having received a note sending him to Monferrato, they all understand the confusion.  Otón is to marry Clemencia, who now loves him.  Criselio and Clavela are to marry, and at Clemencia's request Enrique is pardoned and will marry Criselio's sister and get his lands back.  By Otón's order Rosela is to marry the Count of Florel.  The Duke turns Césaro over to Otón, who gives him two villas and forgives him, saying that thus ignorance, when it is noble, repays envious learned ones.  Gilote, too, is given some land.  Thus through his good fortune Otón has earned happiness and success.


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